Harmonic reducer information


Release time:

2021-04-29

减速器是工业机器人关键部件     工业机器人的研发、制造与应用是衡量一个国家科技创新和高端制造实力与水平的重要标志。工业机器人主要由减速器、伺服电机及控制系统三大核心部件组成,精密减速器是工业机器人中最关键的功能部件,也是目前制约我国机器人产业发展的瓶颈之一。 “打个比方,如果把工业机器人当成人的手臂,减速器就是手臂的关节。”王家序说,减速器是连接动力源和执行机构的中间机构,具有匹配转速和传递转矩的作用。工业机器人需要高强度重复运动,关节的好坏就决定了工业机器人动力传动与运动变换的精度、可靠性和使用寿命。在机器人的总成本中,减速器的成本占到了三成以上。   工业机器人关节主要有RV减速器和谐波减速器两种。长期以来RV减速器一度被日本的纳博特斯克公司垄断,谐波减速器一度被日本的哈默那科公司垄断,严重制约了国产工业机器人的产业发展。   与机械传动打了一辈子交道的王家序,一直以敢闯敢拼闻名。面对国产机器人发展急需的精密减速器,一直从事减速器研究的他,2005年带领团队开始了科研攻关,瞄准的是高可靠精密谐波减速器。   王家序说,谐波减速器具有体积小、质量轻、传动比高、精密度高等优势,在轻负载精密减速器领域占有主导地位,不过谐波减速器技术壁垒高,要实现谐波减速器的自主研发和国产化,就要突破齿形设计、材料、加工技术、测试评价等方面的关键技术瓶颈。 提升我国机器人核心竞争力    在机械传动国家重点实验室,记者看到应用了重庆大学自主研发的谐波减速器的机器人。“它已经在这里运转了6000小时,精准度和使用寿命达到日本同类机器人水平。”王家序解释说,谐波传动通过薄壁柔轮变形使齿轮分度圆变成椭圆实现多齿啮合,从而提高传动高精度、刚度与承载能力。    谐波减速器柔轮的高弹性变形特性使得啮合齿形的精确设计与修形十分困难,齿面易产生磨损,精度保持性差。另外柔轮加工工艺性差,在周期交变应力左右下容易发生疲劳断裂,也使高精度与高刚度、高可靠之间的调控成为突出矛盾。因此,谐波传动实现多齿啮合的原理对设计及加工制造工艺提出了非常苛刻的技术要求,这也是制约国产谐波减速器性能提升的主要原因。    针对上述问题,王家序带领团队根据国家重大需求,瞄准学科发展前沿,在长期坚实的研究基础上,通过啮合原理、界面力学、传动摩擦学、系统动力学和材料科学等多学科创新优化设计研究,系统攻克了精密谐波减速器设计、制造、测试、试验评价技术,建立了共轭参数驱动的圆弧齿廓谐波传动设计、分析与测试评价体系,成功研制出短杯、超短杯和礼帽型的全系列高可靠精密谐波减速器。   形成了3万台套以上的谐波减速器年生产规模,完成了近1万台套的谐波减速器销售规模。高可靠精密谐波减速器产品已推广应用于工业机器人,卫星指向机构、扫描机构、展开机构、控制力矩陀螺等空间机构,以及无人机等装备。   经过专家组验收认定,该项目攻克了谐波减速器这一工业机器人核心基础部件的设计、制造、测试、试验评价以及批量生产、装配过程中产品可靠性和一致性等关键共性技术,形成了具有自主知识产权并达到国际先进水平的高精度、高刚度、高可靠、长寿命、高效率、低噪声、高功率密度的机器人谐波减速器。   为提高我国企业自主创新能力,大跨度地提高国产工业机器人技术水平,提升我国工业机器人核心竞争力,满足我国先进制造和战略新兴产业等工程领域对国产机器人产业化发展的重大需求提供了关键技术条件支撑。

Reducer is a key component of industrial robots

The research and development, manufacturing and application of industrial robots is an important symbol to measure the strength and level of a country's scientific and technological innovation and high-end manufacturing. Industrial robots are mainly composed of three core components: reducer, servo motor and control system. Precision reducer is the most critical functional component in industrial robots, and it is also one of the bottlenecks restricting the development of China's robot industry.

"For example, if an industrial robot is regarded as an adult's arm, the reducer is the joint of the arm." Wang Jiaxu said that the reducer is an intermediate mechanism connecting the power source and the actuator, and has the function of matching the speed and transmitting torque. Industrial robots require high-intensity repetitive motion, and the quality of the joints determines the accuracy, reliability and service life of the power transmission and motion transformation of industrial robots. In the total cost of the robot, the cost of the reducer accounts for more than 30%.

Industrial robot joints are mainlyRV ReducerHarmonious wave reducer two kinds. For a long time, the RV reducer was once monopolized by Japan's Nabotsk company, and the harmonic reducer was once monopolized by Japan's Hamenaco company, which seriously restricted the industrial development of domestic industrial robots.

Wang Jiaxu, who has dealt with mechanical transmission all his life, has always been famous for his daring to break through and fight. Facing the precision reducer urgently needed for the development of domestic robots, he has been engaged in the research of reducer. In 2005, he led the team to start scientific research, aiming at the highly reliable precision harmonic reducer.

Wang Jixu said that the harmonic reducer has the advantages of small size, light weight, high transmission ratio, and high precision. It occupies a dominant position in the field of light-load precision reducers. However, the technical barriers of the harmonic reducer are high. Independent research and development and localization must break through the key technical bottlenecks in tooth design, materials, processing technology, test evaluation, etc.

Improve the core competitiveness of robots in China

In the State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, the reporter saw the application of a robot with a harmonic reducer independently developed by Chongqing University. "It has been running here for 6000 hours, and its accuracy and service life have reached the level of similar robots in Japan." Wang Jiaquo explained that the harmonic drive transforms the gear indexing circle into an ellipse through the deformation of the thin-walled flexible wheel to realize multi-tooth meshing, thereby improving the high precision, rigidity and bearing capacity of the transmission.

The high elastic deformation characteristics of the flexible wheel of the harmonic reducer make the precise design and modification of the meshing tooth profile very difficult, the tooth surface is easy to wear, and the accuracy retention is poor. In addition, the flexible wheel processing technology is poor, and fatigue fracture is easy to occur under the cyclic alternating stress, which also makes the regulation between high precision and high rigidity and high reliability become a prominent contradiction. Therefore, the principle of harmonic drive to achieve multi-tooth meshing puts forward very strict technical requirements for the design and manufacturing process, which is also the main reason for restricting the performance improvement of domestic harmonic reducer.

In view of the above problems, Wang Jiaxu led the team to aim at the frontier of discipline development according to the major national demand. On the basis of long-term solid research, through multi-disciplinary innovative and optimized design research such as meshing principle, interface mechanics, transmission tribology, system dynamics and material science, the design, manufacture, test and evaluation technology of precision harmonic reducer were systematically conquered, the design, analysis and test evaluation system of arc tooth profile harmonic drive driven by conjugate parameters is established, and a full series of high-reliability and precision harmonic reducers of short cup, ultra-short cup and top hat type are successfully developed.

The annual production scale of more than 30000 sets of harmonic reducers has been formed, and the sales scale of nearly 10000 sets of harmonic reducers has been completed. High-reliability precision harmonic reducer products have been widely used in industrial robots, satellite pointing mechanisms, scanning mechanisms, deployment mechanisms, control moment gyro and other space mechanisms, as well.Droneand other equipment.

After acceptance by the expert group, the project has overcome the design, manufacturing, testing, test evaluation, and key common technologies such as product reliability and consistency in the process of mass production and assembly of harmonic reducer, the core basic component of industrial robots. A robot harmonic reducer with high precision, high rigidity, high reliability, long life, high efficiency, low noise, and high power density with independent intellectual property rights and reaching the international advanced level has been formed.

In order to improve the independent innovation ability of Chinese enterprises, improve the technical level of domestic industrial robots in a large span, enhance the core competitiveness of China's industrial robots, and meet the major needs of China's advanced manufacturing and strategic emerging industries for the industrialization of domestic robots.

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